Extensive research has produced a revised DOF. Observers write narrative descriptions of children's behavior during 10-minute periods in group settings, such as classrooms and recess. The on-task and problem ratings are scored on scales displayed on profiles in relation to gender-specific norms for ages 6-11. Norms are based on ethnically diverse samples of 661 children for classroom observations and 224 children for recess observations. "Local norms" for the observational setting are obtained by observing "control" children. The Manual for the ASEBA School Age Forms and Profiles (2001) reports reliability and validity data, plus mean DOF scale scores for referred and control children. Computer-scoring is no longer available. Users creating their own scoring program may refer to pages 24, 28 and 32 of the DOF Manual for the items scored on each of the DOF scales.
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